Q:however, nevertheless 和 moreover 之間有何不同呢?

A:我們可以使用 however 或 nevertheless (或 nonetheless) 這些副詞來使第二句話與第一句話形成對比,即第二件事情與第一件事情或第二個觀念與第一個觀念形成對比。它們之間的差異僅在於 nevertheless 比 however 更為正式一些且比 however 更具加強語氣的強調作用。例如:

  • I can understand everything you say about wanting to go on a trip to Japan with Mike. However, I am totally against it. (我能瞭解你說的有關你想跟麥克一起去日本旅遊的一切事情。然而,我完全反對)
  • Martha had been living in Jiangjun Village for over a decade. Nevertheless, the villagers still considered him to be an outsider. (瑪莎已在將軍村居住了超過十年。然而,村民仍視她為外人)

必須注意的是,在引導兩件事情或兩個觀念之間的對比時,however 和 nevertheless 通常放在句子的開頭,但它們亦可位在句中和句末。例如:

  • There will be no more pay increases this year. That is for sure. We have, however, agreed to carry out a full review of pay and conditions. (今年將不再有加薪。那是千真萬確的。不過,我們已同意全面檢討薪資和勞動條件)
  • There will be no more pay increases this year. That is for sure. We have agreed, nevertheless, to carry out a full review of pay and conditions. (今年將不再有加薪。那是千真萬確的。不過,我們已同意全面檢討薪資和勞動條件)

He’s still able to get around quite well. (他仍然能夠健全地四處走動)

  • His whole life has been plagued by illness, however. (但他的一生飽受疾病的折磨)
  • His whole life has been plagued by illness, nevertheless. (但他的一生飽受疾病的折磨)

英文中比 however 和 nevertheless 更為非正式的用語則有 even so, in spite of this, yet 或 yet…still。這些替換詞較適合用於口說英語。例如:

  • Mary’s really quite ill and has been for some time. Even so / In spite of this she remains in good spirits. (瑪麗真的病得不輕且已生病一段時間。儘管如此,她仍然精神抖擻)
  • Allen has over ten million NT dollars in his bank account. Yet he still gets up at six every morning to go to work. (艾倫的銀行帳戶已有逾一千萬台幣的存款。但他仍每天六點就起床工作)

至於 moreover,其意為「並且,而且,再者,此外」,與 however 的意思並不相同。相較於 furthermore 或 in addition,moreover 是個非常正式的字;在這三者當中,最不正式是 in addition。這些副詞係用來證實已提出的論點或對已說過的話補充資料。例如:

  • Benjamin is, moreover, a novelist of promise. (此外,班傑明還是個有前途的小說家)
  • Bicycling is a good exercise; moreover, it doesn’t pollute the air. (騎腳踏車是很好的運動,而且不會污染空氣)
  • Kevin is inefficient, and furthermore he is innocent of any sense of responsibility. (凱文辦事效率低,而且沒有任何責任感)
  • In addition, Benjamin is a novelist of promise. (此外,班傑明還是個有前途的小說家)
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